LEARNING OUTCOMES AND PRESENCES
D. Randy Garrison
July 10, 2018

In this post I will pick-up on the topic of learning outcomes and the CoI framework that I addressed in a previous editorial (June 19, 2017). At the time I had emphasized that the CoI framework is a model founded on the process of collaborative inquiry. To be clear, a CoI may be transactional but it has specific, intended, and worthwhile learning outcomes. Furthermore, the CoI transaction is based upon the premise that a collaborative constructivist learning experience may be the most effective means to achieve deep and meaningful learning outcomes. While there is evidence that perceived and real quality outcomes are associated with a CoI experience (Garrison, 2017, p. 59), further evidence is required to validate this premise.

With this in mind I was pleased to see new research emerge that explored the interdependencies of the CoI presences and learning outcomes (Yussiff, Ahmad, & Mustapha, 2018). This study used experimental and control groups (60 and 42 participants respectively) to assess the influence of the presences (using the CoI questionnaire) on actual learning outcomes in an e-collaborative learning environment as measured by pre and post-test syllabus performances. The findings validated the CoI questionnaire and using a structural equation model it was “demonstrated that collaborative learning experience strongly predict learning outcomes indirectly through the mediating and moderating effects of the three presences” (Conclusion).

I find these results encouraging but not surprising. We have predicted such results from the outset based on the premise that when deep and meaningful learning expectations exist and care is given to designing and facilitating a collaborative constructivist learning experience, quality outcomes will result. Future research, however, should also consider the quality of learning outcomes. I have argued that a CoI approach (collaborative inquiry) is not required for simple recall of information (surface learning). Collaborative inquiry is simply not necessary or efficient as a means to transfer knowledge in whole. On the other hand, if the goal is to construct deep learning outcomes, then investment in collaborative inquiry is not only justified but arguably essential. The research challenge is to demonstrate that deep learning outcomes are the result of a CoI approach.

Therefore, it is clear to me that linking learning outcomes to the concerted influence of the CoI presences is an area that deserves further study such that it will contribute to the validation of the CoI framework as a means to achieve deep and meaningful learning outcomes.



REFERENCES

Garrison, D. R. (2017). E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Community of Inquiry Framework for Research and Practice (3rd Edition). London: Routledge/Taylor and Francis.

Yussiff, A-S., Ahmad, W. F. W. & Mustapha, E. E. (2018). E-Collaborative Learning experience, Interdependencies of Presences and Learning Outcomes: Evidence of Mediating and Moderating Effects. International Journal of Business Information Systems, forthcoming article.




CONTRIBUTE A RESPONDING EDITORIAL


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

D. Randy Garrison
Professor Emeritus, University of Calgary
D. Randy Garrison is professor emeritus at the University of Calgary.Dr. Garrison has published extensively on teaching and learning in adult, higher and distance education contexts. He has authored, co-authored or edited twelve books and well over 100 refereed articles/chapters.His recent books are Thinking Collaboratively: Learning in a Community of Inquiry (2016) and E-Learning in the 21st Century: A Community of Inquiry Framework for Research and Practice (3rd Edition) (2017); for which he won second place for the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, Division of Distance Learning Book Award, 2017.


RECENT EDITORIALS

Faculty Development and the Community of Inquiry
D. Randy Garrison
May 6, 2022
The focus ofthis short post is to highlight the essential role of faculty development and therole of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework in supporting faculty movingto online and

Automatic Detection of Social Presence
D. Randy Garrison
March 4, 2022
Several years ago, I provided an introduction to the role of learning analytics in the context of the Community of Inquiry framework and how we might facilitate collaborative learning through the automatic monitoring of discourse and tracking the ...

CoI Instrument Validation
D. Randy Garrison
November 25, 2021
My goal here is to simply draw your attention to a study that provides a comprehensive overview of Community of Inquiry (CoI) instrument studies directed to confirmation of the original CoI three-factor structure (

CoI Questionnaire: 2.0?
D. Randy Garrison
July 13, 2021
My goal in this post is to draw attention to an important study that used advanced statistical techniques to analyze the CoI questionnaire (Abbitt & Boone, 2021). While exploring statistical anomalies may not be front of mind for most

Purposeful and Social Interaction
D. Randy Garrison
April 22, 2021
In a previous editorial I had addressed the challenge of designing a collaborative inquiry that goes beyond simple interaction to achieve deep and meaningful learning ( Editorial 18
The Community of Inquiry is a project of the Centre for Distance Education at Athabasca University, researchers of the Community of Inquiry framework, and members of the CoI community.